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What is the Military Industrial Complex
The term military-industrial complex refers to the intricate relationship between the governments, militaries, and defense firms of the United States, Europe, Japan, and other developed states. The phrase was popularized by U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961) in his 1961 farewell address, in which he warned of the dangers of the “military-industrial complex” that had created unheralded ties between the military and large defense manufacturers. Eisenhower asserted that the result was a security establishment that was compromised by the private sector and lacking an emphasis on national defense. The outgoing president warned that the social-economic-political triangle at the core of the military-industrial complex was seeking to develop weapons and armaments to benefit itself, rather than the nation it was supposed to serve. Many commentators would later see Eisenhower's remarks as a broad condemnation of bureaucracies that grew beyond the control or understanding of the citizenry.
Lansford, Tom. "Military-Industrial Complex." The Encyclopedia of Political Science. Ed. George Thomas Kurian. Vol. 3. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2011. 1035-1036. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 27 Oct. 2014.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
SIPRI is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament. Established in 1966, SIPRI provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources, to policymakers, researchers, media and the interested public. Based in Stockholm, SIPRI also has presences in Beijing and Washington, DC and is regularly ranked among the most respected think tanks worldwide.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies
The IISS was founded in the UK in 1958 with a focus on nuclear deterrence and arms control. Today, it is also renowned for its annual Military Balance assessment of countries' armed forces and for its high-powered security summits, including the Shangri-La Dialogue.
World Bank - Armed forces personnel, total
Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organization, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces.
Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC) - Global Militarization Index
With its Global Militarization Index (GMI), BICC is able to objectively depict worldwide militarization for the first time. The GMI compares, for example, a country’s military expenditure with its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its health expenditure.
It contrasts the total number of military and paramilitary forces in a country with the number of physicians. Finally, it studies the number of heavy weapons available to a country’s armed forces. These and other indicators are used to determine a country’s ranking, which in turn makes it possible to measure the respective level of militarization in comparison to other countries.
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