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IEEE STYLE GUIDE: In-Text Citations

This Libguide is an introduction to using IEEE citation system.

In-Text Citations

IEEE in-text citations consist of a number enclosed in square brackets, which corresponds to the appropriate resource in the reference list at the end of your paper.


The in-text citation numbers begin at [1], and proceed in ascending order throughout your paper – unless you are referencing a resource you have already cited in your text (in which case you use the previously assigned number).


Be aware that any edits to the references in the text of your paper may mean you have to renumber your reference list.


In-Text Citations are placed inside the punctuation of a sentence. For example,


"...the findings from our trial support the findings by other researchers in the field [1]."


Examples of In-text Citations


Single Reference stated by Arellano [2].


Two Authors

Tyner and Bede [19] concluded...


Three or More Authors

Hamilton et al. [20] discovered ...


Multiple References

... as Bennett indicated in [3]-[6].

.... Black's previous research indicated [7], [13], [28], [31]-[35]. 


Reference Within a Reference

... supporting Smith's findings in [14, pp. 10-15].



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