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APA for Business Sources

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) provides many citation examples, but does not cover every resource. Some sources may fall within this area. In these cases, we have to interpret the rules provided in the manual to determine how best to cite a source

If we deconstruct a citation into its basic components, there are four elements you need to include when creating citations: who, when, what, and where; basically this translates to: author, date, title, and how/where to locate the item.

These elements are generally formatted in a certain order: Who. (When). What. Where. If you are missing one of these elements, check out this useful table/template from the APA Style Blog: APA Missing Pieces

Remember to:

  • Arrange reference list entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no author.
  • Use only the initial(s) of the author’s first name and middle name (if given).
  • List in chronological order (oldest first) two or more entries by the same author(s).
  • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the title and subtitle of an article or book. Capitalize all proper nouns. For journal titles, capitalize all significant words.
  • Italicize journal titles and volume numbers. Do not italicize issue numbers. Italicize book titles.
  • Include all references cited in text in your reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and secondary sources, which are cited in text only and are not included in the reference list. 
  • Clearly mark any republished tables, graphs, or figures (including photographs and illustrations) as reprinted or adapted, and include the original source both in the text and in a full reference list entry. Please see the APA Citation Guide for Business Sources for more information.
  • If you are unable to identify a specific example, follow an example that is most like your source.

DOI or URL?

Most journal articles and many books are found online. In order to provide a complete citation, you should include a DOI or a URL.

The best option is to provide the DOI whenever it is available. DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique series of numbers and letters assigned to an individual article. Look for DOIs on the first page of an article, or in the record from whichever database you are using.

  • Note: there are two DOI formats, either one is correct:
    • doi:10.1037/rmh0000008 or
    • http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rmh0000008
 
The second best option is to provide a URL (unique resource locator) for the journal homepage. You may need to search online to locate the journal homepage. For example, the homepage for the Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association is:
 
  • https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/jchla
Do not give the URL of the database where you found the journal, or the URL to the individual article, as those links are generally not stable and may break over time. 

Reports

Template

Author, A. (Year). Title of report: Subtitle of report (Report No. xxx) [Description of form]. Retrieved from Agency Name website: http://  

The square brackets indicate the format of the content (e.g. brochure, fact sheet, etc.).

Report found in a library database

Canada’s Public Policy Forum. (2014). Northern connections: Broadband and Canada’s digital divide: Final report. Retrieved from http://www.deslibris.ca

Report found online

Statistics Canada. (2010). Labour force information (Catalogue no. 71-001-X). Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/71-001-x/71-001- x2010006-eng.pdf

Report found online, author different than publisher

Marqui, S., Butler, M., Jospeh, R., & Ney, K. (2000). Diabetes in British Columbia synthesis report. Retrieved from British Columbia Ministry of Healthy Living and Sport website: http://www.hls.gov.bc.ca/publications/year/2000/diabetes_synthesis.pdf

Fact sheet

Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.). Salmonella [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/fs-sa/fs-fi/salmonella-eng.php

Web pages

Template 

Author, A. (date). Title of document. Retrieved from http://...

Company website

Company. (date). Title of document. Retrieved from http://...

No Author?

The title moves to the author position.

Title. (Date). Retrieved from http://

Example:

Co-founder Dorsey returns to Twitter. (2011, April 14). Retrieved from http://designweek.co.uk

No Date?

When there is no date you use (n.d.) instead.

Magazine, Newspaper, Encyclopedia articles - online

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Magazine or Newspaper, volume(issue), page numbers. Retrieved from http://...

Magazine article 

Wells, P. (2016, August 2). The first 100 days. Maclean's, 129(5), 21-23. Retrieved from http://www.macleans.ca/

Newspaper article 

Taylor, P. (2009, October 22). Study finds recession can be good for your health. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com

Template

Author, A. (Year). Title of article. In Title of encyclopedia. doi:xxx OR Retrieved from http://...

Encyclopedia article 

Cohen, T. R. (2010). Conflict resolution. In Corsini encyclopedia of psychology. doi: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0219

Dictionary definition 

Materialism. (n.d.). In Oxford English dictionary. Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed.com

From the APA Style Blog, a post on how to decide when to use a home page URL, or the direct URL to the full document:

APA Style Blog: What to use-- the full document URL or home page URL?

Social media & blog posts

Template

Author, A. (Year, Month day). Title of post [Format]. Retrieved from http://....

Blog post

Geist, M. (2016, January 6). The trouble with the TPP, Day 3: Copyright term extension [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.michaelgeist.ca/2016/01/the -trouble-with-the-tpp-day-3-copyright-termextension/

Facebook page

Okanagan College (2016, April 12). Timeline [Facebook page]. Retrieved December 5, 2016, from https://www.facebook.com/OkanaganCollegeLibrary/?hc_ref=PAGES_TIMELINE&fref=nf

Twitter 

Okanagan College (2016, November 9). Next week @ OC is #InternationalEducationWeek, a great opportunity to learn about culture traditions from fellow students [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/OC_Lib

Streaming video and YouTube

Template

Author, A. (Year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://...

Streaming video from a library database

Lester, R. (Director). (1964). A hard day’s night [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.kanopystreaming.com

YouTube

Patel, A. (2008, January 22). Music and the mind [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=ZgKFeuzGEns

Data and tables

Statistics Canada. (2012). Census metropolitan area of Kelowna, British Columbia. (Catalogue number 98-310-XWE2011004). Retrieved November 23, 2016 from Statistics Canada: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/fogs-spg/Facts-CMA-eng.cfm?LANG=Eng&GK=CMA&GC=915  

For more information on how to cite Statistics Canada see Statistics Canada: Build your reference in three steps.

Figures: charts, maps, graphs, photographs, drawings or illustrations

Reference whatever source the image, graph, figure etc. comes from, whether that is a journal article, book, report, or website.

Template

Author or Organization. (Year). Title [Format]. Retrieved from...

Examples

Okanagan College Library. (2015, September 22). Science literacy week 2015 [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/okanagancollegelibrary/21494383680/

Journal articles - online

You may have to look at more than one example to decide how to cite a journal article. Articles may have multiple authors, and may or may not have issues, page numbers, or DOIs.

Template

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page numbers. doi:xxx OR Retrieved from http://journal_home_page

Journal article - one author, with DOI, no issue

Manouselis, N. (2008). Deploying and evaluating multiattribute product recommendation in e-markets. International Journal of Management & Decision Making, 9, 43-61. doi:10.1504/IJMDM.2008.016041

Journal article - two authors, no DOI, no issue

​Crystal, J. D., & Foote, A. L. (2009). Metacognition in animals. Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 4, 1-16. Retrieved from http://psyc.queensu.ca/ccbr

Journal article - no page numbers, no issue

Auer, M. M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Testing normative and self-appraisal feedback in an online slot-machine pop-up in a real-world setting. Frontiers in Psychology, 6. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00339

Journal article with issue

Premkumar, K., Ross, A. G., Lowe, J., Troy C., Bolster, C., & Reeder, B. (2010). Technology-enhanced learning of community health in undergraduate medical education. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101(2), 165-170. Retrieved from https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/jchla

Journal article - up to 7 authors

Cummings, E., Schermerhorn, A., Merrilees, C., Goeke-Morey, M., Shirlow, P., & Cairns, E. (2010). Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social–ecological model including single-and two-parent families. Developmental Psychology, 46, 827-841. doi: 10.1037/a0019668

Journal article - 8 or more authors

Lavoie, M. P, Lam, R. W., Bouchard, G., Sasseville, A., Charron, M. C., Gagné, A. M., … Hébert, M. (2009). Evidence of a biological effect of light therapy on the retina of patients with seasonal affective disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 253-258. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych .2008.11.020

For more than 7 authors, include the first 6, followed by an ellipses, then the last author. See the APA Style Blog: Formatting APA References With More Than Seven Authors.

Lecture notes, Moodle

Template

Author, A. (Year). Lecture notes title: Subtitle. [Format]. Retrieved from https://...

The square brackets indicate the file format of the content (e.g. Word document, PDF, etc.).

Example

Rempel, K. (2007). Chapter ten: Motivating and rewarding employees. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://mymoodle.okanagan.bc.ca/

 

Article or chapter in a course pack

When citing content from a course pack, cite the information as if from the original source. There is no need to include information about the course pack unless your instructor specifically asks you to do so.

Example

Gordon, B. (2005). Kate Bush’s subversive shoes. Women and Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture, 9, 37-50. 

For more information about citing course packs, see the APA Style Blog: How to Cite Course Packs, Custom Textbooks, and Other Classroom Compendiums

Legislation, case law, Criminal Code

Legislation

Family Relations Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c.128.

Case law

R. v. Latimer (2000), [2001] 1 S.C.R. 3

Criminal Code

Criminal Code, s. 718.2(e). (2007). Martin’s online Criminal Code. Retrieved from http://www.canadalawbook.ca 

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