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ANTH 121: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology

This course guide will help you find the library resources that will be most helpful to you for this specific course. Please view the Anthropology Research Guide for more general resources.

Citation Style used by the American Anthropological Association (AAA)

As of September 2015, the American Anthropological Association style for citing all publications follows the *Author-Date System from the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition.

*Please note the Chicago Manual of Style 17th provides two different styles:
                                    AUTHOR-DATE    and      NOTES & BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ANTHROPOLOGY follows the Author-Date System 

Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.  

Please do not confuse the two very different systems presented by The Chicago Manual of Style

What style does the AAA follow?  

Since September 2015, the AAA citation style for all publications follows the “Author-Date System” of the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition.

Please do not confuse Chicago Manual of Style's two citation style systems:

     1 - Author-Date system
 is followed by the Anthropology Department.
     2 - Notes and Bibliography system is followed by the History Department.

The following summary of citations was taken directly from the American Anthropological Association's webpage on Publishing Styles.

In-text citations

  • Place citations in parentheses and include the author’s name and the source’s year of publication, with no intervening punctuation, at the end of a sentence or before a comma or semicolon, whenever possible: (Herzfeld 2005).
  • Always include page numbers for quotations or extensive paraphrases, using an en dash for page ranges: (Herzfeld 2005, 146–47). (Note: they are preceded by a comma, not a colon; this is a major change from the AAA Style Guide.)
  • Use semicolons to separate two or more references in a single parenthetical citation and list them alphabetically: (Bessire and Bond 2014; Comaroff 1996; Daser 2014; Foucault 2000).
  • Do not include “ed.” or “trans.” in citations (and in the case of books that have been reprinted or updated, do not include the original publication year), as this information will be included on the reference list.
  • Use the first author’s last name and et al. for works with four or more authors.
  • You may use the following abbreviations: , e.g., and i.e. Do not use ibid., passim, op. cit., and so on. Only very rarely would we use ff., “when referring to a section for which no final number can usefully be given” (CMS 14.156).

Reference list

  • Do not embed the reference list in the endnotes.
  • Include every source cited in the text and no others, listed alphabetically by author.
  • When including multiple works by the same author, list them chronologically, from oldest to most recent.
  • For works published by the same author in the same year, add a, b, and so on, and list them alphabetically by title. 


Asad, Talal. 2003. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Bender, Courtney, and Pamela E. Klassen. 2010. After Pluralism: Reimagining Religious Engagement. New York: Columbia University Press.


Book Chapters

Bielo, James S. 2016. “Creationist History-Making: Producing a Heterodox Past.” In Lost City, Found Pyramid: Understanding Alternative Archaeologies and Pseudoscientific Practices, edited by J. J. Card and D. S. Anderson, 81-101. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Comaroff, Jean. 1996. “The Empire’s Old Clothes: Fashioning the Colonial Subject.” In Cross-Cultural Consumption: Global Markets, Local Realities, edited by David Howes, 19–38. London: Routledge.


Chapter in Multivolume Work

Foucault, Michel. 2000. “Lives of Infamous Men.” In Power, edited by James Faubion and translated by Robert Hurley, 157–77. Vol. 3 of The Essential Works of Foucault, 1954–1984, edited by Paul Rabinow. New York: New Press. First published 1977.


Edited Volume

Stoler, Ann, ed. 2013. Imperial Debris: On Ruins and Ruination. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.


Translated Work

Mauss, Marcel. 2016. The Gift. Edited and translated by Jane I. Guyer. Chicago: Hau Books. Distributed by University of Chicago Press. First published 1925.


Translations Supplied by Author

Pirumova, Nataliia Mikhailovna. 1977. Zemskoe liberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsial’nye korni i evoliutsiia do nachala XX veka [The Zemstvo liberal movement: Its social roots and evolution to the beginning of the twentieth century]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka.”

Note that the original title should be transliterated, if necessary. Do not translate any other element of the reference besides the title.


Journal Articles

Bessire, Lucas, and David Bond. 2014. “Ontological Anthropology and the Deferral of Critique.” American Ethnologist 41 (3): 440–56.

Bialecki, Jon. 2016. “Apostolic Networks in the Third Wave of the Spirit: John Wimber and the Vineyard.” Pneuma 38 (1-2): 23–32.

**Yates-Doerr, Emily. 2015. “Does Meat Come from Animals? A Multispecies Approach to Classification and Belonging in Highland Guatemala.” American Ethnologist 42 (2): 309–23. doi:10.1111/amet.12132.

**DOIs should be included only if you really did consult the article online. They are preferable to URLs, being more stable. No access date is necessary in this case.


Online Resources

*Daser, Deniz. 2014. “AE Interviews Catherine Lutz (Brown University).” American Ethnologist website, May 9. Accessed [Month Day, Year].

*Note that online references require an access date.


Multimedia Source

Lemelson, Robert, dir. 2009. 40 Years of Silence: An Indonesian Tragedy. Los Angeles: Elemental Productions. DVD.


Single Author and Coauthors

Meyer, Birgit. 2010. “Aesthetics of Persuasion: Global Christianity and Pentecostalism's Sensational Forms.” South Atlantic Quarterly 109 (4):741-63.

Meyer, Birgit, and Annelies Moors. 2006. Religion, Media, and the Public Sphere. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.


Multiple References by the Same Author

Stout, Noelle. 2014. “Bootlegged: Unauthorized Circulation and the Dilemmas of Collaboration in the Digital Age.” Visual Anthropology Review 30 (2): 177–87.

Stout, Noelle. 2015a. “Generating Home.” Cultural Anthropology Online, March 30. Accessed [Month Day, Year].

Stout, Noelle. 2015b. “When a Yuma Meets Mama: Commodified Kin and the Affective Economies of Queer Tourism in Cuba.” Anthropological Quarterly 8 (33): 663–90.

CITING IMAGES from the Chicago Manual of Style Online (Author-Date)
“Author-date citations are not normally used to cite images. Instead, put the information about the image into a caption or in parentheses in the text of your paper.
When you quote someone in a paper and cite a source for the quotation, you don’t normally write to the people you’re quoting to ask for permission; it’s enough simply to give them credit in a note.
For images that you borrow (photos, paintings, drawings), the rules are different. There are laws that require users to get permission from the copyright holder in addition to giving credit.

Good news for students
Luckily for students and teachers and librarians, the laws requiring permission don’t apply to “educational use.” So it’s fine to borrow images for a class paper or presentation without contacting the copyright holder—although you are not off the hook for giving credit.

Give the name of the artist, the title of the artwork (in italics), the year it was made, and where it lives (museum, gallery, etc.). It’s fine to add other information if you know it, such as the size and medium. If you found it online, give the date you found it and the URL. If you found it in a book, cite the book and page number. You can put the information in a caption near the image or in an endnote or footnote. (Images are not usually listed in a bibliography.)"

Citation Management Tools

Need help creating and managing references? Online citation management tools allow you to access, manage, and cite your sources in a single place.

Citation Management Tools:

  • ZoteroZotero -  A free, open source tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share research sources.
  • ​Mendeley - A free reference manager to help you organize and share your research.
  • Microsfot Word - In MS Word, go to the References tab, then click on Insert Citation, then click to Add a New Source.
  • EndNoteEndNote Basic - Free web-based service used to store references and create bibliographies. 
  • Library databases - Many library databases will have a “Cite” tool or citation generator. Use this to generate a citation for the source. Review the citation according to a citation style guide to ensure accuracy.
  • Unsure which tool to try? MIT and UVIC libraries have charts that compare the different features of some of these tools.

Be sure to review any citations for accuracy. Spelling and syntax errors are common with computer-generated references. The Library will help you construct citations and review reference style guides. Staff may not be able to assist with citation management software.

Keep your personal privacy in mind when using these online tools. These products store data on non-Canadian servers. Use of these reference services is voluntary. Your personal information may be stored in the US or another country. Your account information will be subject to the laws of the country where the information is stored.

APA Citation Style

APA Citation Style is used in some ANTH courses. Below are some helpful resources. Check with your professor if you are unsure which style to use. 

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