The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) provides many citation examples, but does not cover every resource. In these cases, we have to interpret the rules provided in the manual to determine how best to cite a source.
Citations have four basic components: who, when, what, and where
These translate to: author, date, title, and how/where to locate the item
These elements are generally formatted in a certain order: Who. (When). What. Where. If you are missing one of these elements, check out this useful table/template from the APA Style Blog: APA Missing Pieces
Author, A. (year). Book title: Book subtitle. City of publication, abbreviated State/Prov: Publisher Name.
Only capitalize the first word of the title, first word of the subtitle and any proper nouns.
Book, one author
Heschl, A. (2001). The intelligent genome: On the origin of the human mind by mutation and selection. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Book, 2nd edition or later
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Edited book - entire book
Lenzenweger, M. F., & Hooley, J. M. (Eds.). (2002). Principles of experimental psychopathology: Essays in honor of Brendan A. Maher. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chapter or article in an edited book
Rasmusson, A. M., & Friedman, M. J. (2002). Gender issues in the neurobiology of PTSD. In R. Kimerling, P. Ouimette & J. Wolfe (Eds.), Gender and PTSD (pp. 43-75). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Electronic version of a print book
Worell, J., & Goodheart, C. D. (2006). Handbook of girls’ and women’s psychological health. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com OR http://doi.org/...
Most journal articles and many books are found online. You should include a DOI or a URL in order to provide a complete citation.
The best option is to provide the DOI whenever it is available. A DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique series of numbers and letters assigned to an individual article. Look for DOIs on the first page of an article or in the record from whichever database you are using.
Note: there are three DOI formats, any one is correct:
You may have to look at more than one example to decide how to cite a journal article. Articles may have multiple authors, and may or may not have issues, page numbers or DOIs. Include the issue number if the journal is paginated by issue. If the first page of a new issue does not start with page 1 then you do not include the issue. For example, the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency volume 47 number 4 begins on page 419, so the volume number is included but not the issue number.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page numbers. http://doi.org/xxx OR Retrieved from http://journal_home_page
Journal article - one author, with DOI, no issue
Manouselis, N. (2008). Deploying and evaluating multiattribute product recommendation in e-markets. International Journal of Management & Decision Making, 9, 43-61. http://doi.org/10.1504/IJMDM.2008.016041
Journal article - two authors, no DOI, no issue
Crystal, J. D., & Foote, A. L. (2009). Metacognition in animals. Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 4, 1-16. Retrieved from http://psyc.queensu.ca/ccbr
Journal article - no page numbers, no issue
Auer, M. M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Testing normative and self-appraisal feedback in an online slot-machine pop-up in a real-world setting. Frontiers in Psychology, 6. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00339
Journal article with issue
Premkumar, K., Ross, A. G., Lowe, J., Troy C., Bolster, C., & Reeder, B. (2010). Technology-enhanced learning of community health in undergraduate medical education. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101(2), 165-170. Retrieved from https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/jchla
Journal article - up to 7 authors
Cummings, E., Schermerhorn, A., Merrilees, C., Goeke-Morey, M., Shirlow, P., & Cairns, E. (2010). Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social–ecological model including single-and two-parent families. Developmental Psychology, 46, 827-841. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0019668
Journal article - 8 or more authors
Lavoie, M. P, Lam, R. W., Bouchard, G., Sasseville, A., Charron, M. C., Gagné, A. M., … Hébert, M. (2009). Evidence of a biological effect of light therapy on the retina of patients with seasonal affective disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 253-258. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych .2008.11.020
For more than 7 authors, include the first 6, followed by an ellipses, then the last author. See the APA Style Blog: Formatting APA References With More Than Seven Authors.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page numbers.
Journal article - print, 2 authors
Noonan, J. R., & Johnson, R. K. (2002). The misuse of the diagnosis of bipolar disorder in the forensic context. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 20(3), 5-19.
Many of the examples above apply to print journal articles and the only difference is that you do not need to provide a DOI or URL.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Magazine or Newspaper, volume(issue), page numbers. Retrieved from http://...
Wells, P. (2016, August 2). The first 100 days. Maclean's, 129(5), 21-23. Retrieved from http://www.macleans.ca/
Taylor, P. (2009, October 22). Study finds recession can be good for your health. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com
Author, A. (Year). Title of article. In Title of encyclopedia. http://doi.org/xxx OR Retrieved from http://...
Cohen, T. R. (2010). Conflict resolution. In Corsini encyclopedia of psychology. http://doi.org/10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0219
Materialism. (n.d.). In Oxford English dictionary. Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed.com
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Magazine or Newspaper, volume(issue), page numbers.
Padgett, T., & Grillo, I. (2008, August 25). Cocaine capital. Time, 172(8), 28-30.
Seymour, R. (2015, March 12). Chipping program may get more funds. The Daily Courier, p. A3.
Author, A. (Year). Title of article. In Title of reference work (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
Atwood, Margaret. (2016). In World book encyclopedia (Vol. 1, p. 880). Chicago, IL: World Book.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Cautionary statement for forensic use of DSM-5. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Author, A. (date). Title of document. Retrieved from http://...
Company. (date). Title of document. Retrieved from http://...
The title moves to the author position.
Title. (Date). Retrieved from http://
Co-founder Dorsey returns to Twitter. (2011, April 14). Retrieved from http://designweek.co.uk
When there is no date you use (n.d.).
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Format]. Retrieved from http://....
Geist, M. (2016, January 6). The trouble with the TPP, Day 3: Copyright term extension [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.michaelgeist.ca/2016/01/the -trouble-with-the-tpp-day-3-copyright-termextension/
Okanagan College. (2016, April 12). Timeline [Facebook page]. Retrieved December 5, 2016, from https://www.facebook.com/OkanaganCollegeLibrary/?hc_ref=PAGES_TIMELINE&fref=nf
Okanagan College. (2016, November 9). Next week @ OC is #InternationalEducationWeek, a great opportunity to learn about culture traditions from fellow students [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/OC_Lib
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://...
Streaming video from a library database
Lester, R. (Director). (1964). A hard day’s night [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.kanopystreaming.com
Patel, A. (2008, January 22). Music and the mind [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=ZgKFeuzGEns
Statistics Canada. (2012). Census metropolitan area of Kelowna, British Columbia. (Catalogue number 98-310-XWE2011004). Retrieved November 23, 2016 from Statistics Canada: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/fogs-spg/Facts-CMA-eng.cfm?LANG=Eng&GK=CMA&GC=915
For more information on how to cite Statistics Canada see Statistics Canada: Build your reference in three steps.
Reference the source from where the figure was retrieved whether that is a journal article, book, report or website.
Author or Organization. (Year). Title [Format]. Retrieved from...
Okanagan College Library. (2015, September 22). Science literacy week 2015 [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/okanagancollegelibrary/21494383680/
Author, A. (Year). Title of report: Subtitle of report (Report No. xxx) [Description of form]. Retrieved from Agency Name website: http://
The square brackets indicate the format of the content (e.g. brochure, fact sheet, etc.).
Report found in a library database
Canada’s Public Policy Forum. (2014). Northern connections: Broadband and Canada’s digital divide: Final report. Retrieved from http://www.deslibris.ca
Report found online
Statistics Canada. (2010). Labour force information (Catalogue no. 71-001-X). Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/71-001-x/71-001- x2010006-eng.pdf
Report found online, author different than publisher
Marqui, S., Butler, M., Jospeh, R., & Ney, K. (2000). Diabetes in British Columbia synthesis report. Retrieved from British Columbia Ministry of Healthy Living and Sport website: http://www.hls.gov.bc.ca/publications/year/2000/diabetes_synthesis.pdf
Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.). Salmonella [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/fs-sa/fs-fi/salmonella-eng.php
Author, A. (Year). Lecture notes title: Subtitle. [Format]. Retrieved from https://...
The square brackets indicate the file format of the content (Word document, PDF, etc.).
Rempel, K. (2007). Chapter ten: Motivating and rewarding employees. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://mymoodle.okanagan.bc.ca/
Cite the content from a course pack as if from the original source. There is no need to include information about the course pack unless specifically requested by your instructor.
Gordon, B. (2005). Kate Bush’s subversive shoes. Women and Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture, 9, 37-50.
For more information about citing course packs, see the APA Style Blog: How to Cite Course Packs, Custom Textbooks, and Other Classroom Compendiums
Name of Department. (Year). Name of course lab manual. Name of College, City, Country.
Department of Chemistry. (2016). Chemistry 121 lab manual A. Okanagan College, Kelowna, Canada
Revised Statutes of Canada
Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46.
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, s 7, Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (UK), 1982, c11.
Revised Statutes of British Columbia
Treaty Commission Act, RSBC 1996, c 461.
Statutes of British Columbia
Parental Liability Act, SBC 2001, c 45.
Case law, neutral citation (identifies case only, not where it is located or retrieved from)
Template: Case Name (Year of Decision), Court Identifier* Decision number
Example: R. v. Latimer (2001), SCC 1
Case law, retrieved from QuickLaw
QuickLaw has its own abbreviations for judgments handed down by the courts, for example Supreme Court Judgment (SCJ) or Alberta Judgment (AJ). When it is not clear from the abbreviation which type of court, the court identifier should be added in parentheses at the end of the citation. For example, if the abbreviation BCJ is used and the judgment came from the BC Court of Appeals, then add (BCCA) at the end of the citation.
Example 1: R. v. Latimer (2001), SCJ no 1 (QL).
Example 2: R. v. Ellard (2008), BCJ no 1689 (QL) (BCCA).
Case law, retrieved from Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII)
If the case has been reported (example 1), the citation for a case retrieved from CanLII should include first the information for the court reporter, followed by the neutral citation and then CanLII in parentheses. Include the year of the decision (from the neutral citation) in parentheses beside the case name. If it is an unreported case (example 2), use the number assigned by CanLII and include the court identifier in brackets. When citing more than one case with the same case name and year, add a, b, etc. after the year to distinguish them in your in-text citations.
Example 1: R. v. Latimer (2001),  1 SCR 3, 2001 SCC 1 (CanLII).
Example 2: Latimer v. Canada (Treasury Board) (C.A.) (1991),  2 FCR 361, 1991 CanLII 8230 (FCA).
Example 3: R. v. Glowatski (1999a), CanLII 5608 (BCSC).
Example 4: R. v. Glowatski (1999b), CanLII 5632 (BCSC).
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