Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.
Consult the print version of the APA style manual in your campus library's Reference Collection for more in-depth information:
BF 76.7 .P83 2020
OC Library's APA Citation Style Resources
APA Style Examples from APA - Comprehensive list of online examples from APA
APA Style Guide from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
The APA manual is the official style guides published by the American Psychological Association. Copies of the manual are available in the Library and the Bookstore. APA is the reference system for psychology, business, and health disciplines.
In-text Citation (Generic Example)
Reference List Citation (Generic Example)
|(Author(s), date)||Surname, first initial. (date). Title. Source Title. Publication specific details.|
Have you seen the online APA Citation tutorial?
OC Library APA Style Guide
APA uses an author-date citation format (ie. Smith, 2010)
Regardless of the resource you are citing, you will likely need an author, date, title, source, and specific format information (such as a volume number, page numbers, a URL, publisher, etc.).
The information required for your citation will depend on what you are citing (book, journal article, report, etc.) and the format (print, online).
What is a DOI and when do I need one? This APA flowchart walks you through the steps of finding a DOI, and when to use the journal or publisher home page URL instead. CrossRef offers a DOI look-up tool. Copy and paste portions of your citation and it will find the DOI if available.
Please note that 2nd line of APA reference needs to be hanging. Due to formatting issues, we aren't able to display it. But you can see what hanging references look like in our APA guide.
Note: Include DOI information for eBooks. If there is no DOI and the book is from a library database, do not include a URL (APA, 2020, section 9.30). If the book is from the web, include a URL.
If the ebook is from an academic research database and has no DOI or stable URL, end the book reference after the publisher name. Do not include the name of the database in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book.
Pinkzuk, J. Z., & Dunham-Taylor, J. (2015). Financial management for nurse managers: Merging the heart with the dollar (3rd ed.). Taylor and Francis. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000168-000
In-text: (Pinkzuk & Dunham-Taylor, 2015)
Print: Author, A. A. (year). Title of chapter or essay in book. In D. Editor, E. Editor, & F. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. essay page range in book). Publisher Name.
Online: Author(s) of article. (Year of publication). Title of article. In Name of editor(s) (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (Edition, Page numbers). DOI (or cite as print article if no DOI)
Rasmusson, A. M., & Friedman, M. J. (2002). Gender issues in the neurobiology of PTSD. In R. Kimerling, P. Ouimette, & J. Wolfe (Eds.), Gender and PTSD (pp. 43-75). The Guilford Press.
In-Text: (Rasmusson & Friedman, 2002)
Sweller, J. (2005). Implications of cognitive load theory for multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 19-30). https://doi....
OR No DOI
Sweller, J. (2005). Implications of cognitive load theory for multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 19-30).
In-text: (Sweller, 2005)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). URL or DOI
Known author: Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/
In-text: (Graham, 2005)
Etzkowitz, H., & Dzisah, J. (2009). University–industry relationships. In J.B. Callicott & R. Froderman (Eds.), Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy (Vol.2, pp. 344-346).
In-text: (Etzkowitz & Dzisah, 2009)
Unknown author and no DOI: Landscape gardening. (2004). In K. Barber (Ed.), The Canadian Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.).
If this was retrieved from the Library's Oxford Reference Online database, you should conduct a Google search to find the generic database home page, rather than including, Oxford Reference Online database.
In-text: ("Landscape Gardening," 2004)
These information sheets often do not have page numbers, in which case include the paragraph number or section heading (if there are no page numbers) placed in brackets at the end of the sentence.
Author, a. & Author, B. (Date). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Source/Publication in Italics. https://doi... OR Retrieved from http://Web address (use the database permalink)
DeVesty, G. B. M. (2018). Midline catheter: Removing. CINAHL Nursing Guide. https://doi....OR Retrieved from http://Web address (use the database permalink)
In-text: (DeVesty, 2018) or (DeVesty, 2018, "Facts and Figures").
For more information about Mobile Apps, see page 340 of the APA Manual, 7th edition.
Mobile App reference work
Author, A.A., & Author, B. B. (year of the version). Title in italics. (edition number if needed) (Version number) [Mobile app]. Publisher of the app or name of the app store. URL if possible
Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C.A., & Deglin, J.H. (2020). Davis's Canadian Drug Guide (17th ed.) (Version 4.41)[Mobile app]. App Store. https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/daviss-canadian-drug-guide/id1145788777
Entry in a mobile app reference work
Author, A.A., & Author, B. B. OR the company that created the app. (year of the version). Title of the entry. In Name of the app in italics. (edition number if needed) (Version number) [Mobile app]. Publisher of the app or name of the App Store. URL if possible
Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C. A., & Deglin, J. H. (2019). Omeprazole. In C. Quiring (Contributing Ed.), Davis’s Canadian Drug Guide (16th ed.). In Nursing Central (Version 4.5.2) [Mobile app]. Unbound Medicine. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral
Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C.A., & Deglin, J.H. (2020). Naproxen. In Davis's Canadian Drug Guide (17th ed.) (Version 4.41) [Mobile app]. App Store. https://apps.apple.com/ca/app/daviss-canadian-drug-guide/id1145788777
(Vallerand et al., 2020)
Canadian Pharmacists Association. (2016, February 19). Atacand. In CPS Full Access (Version 126.96.36.199) [Mobile app]. Google Play Store. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=vspringboard.cpha.activity&hl=en_CA
In Text, first citation
(Canadian Pharmacists Association [CPhA], 2016)
In Text, subsequent citations
Van, Bewer, V., Woodgate, R. L., Martin, D., & Deer, F. (2020). The importance and promise of integrating Indigenous knowledges in nursing education. Witness: The Canadian Journal of Critical Nursing Discourse, 2 (1), 11-23. https://doi.org/10.25071/2291-5796.46
Bathing: Bed bath (pediatric). (2016, January). Elsevier clinical skills. URL
Urinary catheter: Indwelling (Foley) catheter care. (2015, January). Elsevier clinical skills. URL
(Urinary catheter, 2015)
Canadian Pharmacists Association. (2016, February 19). Atacand. CPS Full Access. https://www.myrxtx.ca
Canadian Pharmacists Association. (2016, February 19). Atacand. RxTx. https://www.myrxtx.ca
Laden, G. (2011, May 8). A history of childbirth and misconceptions about life expectancy. http://scienceblogs.com/gregladen/2011/05/a_history_of_childbirth_and_mi.php
In-text: (Laden, 2011)
Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of release). Title of film in sentence case and italics [Format]. http://website.com
In-text: Cite last name of producer(s) and/or director(s) and year in brackets:
Retrieved from Netflix
Finerman, W. (Producer), & Frankel, D. (Director). (2006). The devil wears Prada [Video]. Netflix. http://www.netflix.com/
Retrieved from Library Database
Lester, R. (Director). (1964). A hard day’s night [Video]. Kanopy. http://www.kanopystreaming.com
In-text: (Lester, 1964)
DiCaprio, L. (Producer), & Petersen, L. C. (Writer/Director). (2008). The 11th hour [Film]. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Entertainment.
In-text: (DiCaprio, 2008)
Author. (date). Title. Retrieved from URL
National Geographic Society. (n.d.). Flying fish. http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/flying-fish/#
In-text: (Author, year)
(National Geographic Society, n.d.)
Artist Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork [Format]. URL (address of web site)
Baumel, A. (2010). Cholera treatment center in Haiti [Photograph]. https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org
Caduceus simple [Digital image]. (2014, February 22). Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Caduceus_simple.svg
(Caduceus simple, 2014)
No author, no title, and no date:
[Subject and type of work]. URL (address of web site)
Many images found on the Web fall under this category. Try to locate the missing information by clicking on the image, and/or looking at the bottom of the image.
British Columbia College of Nursing Professionals. (2020, January). Professional standards for Licensed Practical Nurses. https://www.bccnp.ca/Standards/LPN/StandardsResources/LPN_ProfessionalStandards.pdf
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