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APA Citation (7th edition)

In-text citations

In-text (parenthetical or narrative) citations are there to give credit to your source and to point your reader to the complete reference at the end of your paper.

APA uses the author-date system. In-text citations should include the author's last name and the date of the publication. When quoting directly, the in-text citation should also include the page number(s). If the pages are not numbered, paragraph numbers and/or section headings can be used instead. See APA Style Author-Date Citation for further details. 

In-text citation examples

 

Parenthetical

Narrative

Direct Quote, single page

For e-marketers, this case study "can prove of significant added value" (Manouselis, 2008, p. 44).

Manouselis (2008) believes his case study "can prove of significant added value" (p. 44) for e-marketers.

Direct Quote, multiple pages

E-market operators should evaluate conditions "close to the actual e-market ones... before they deploy them online" (Manouselis, 2008, pp. 44-45).

Manouselis (2008) suggests that e-market operators evaluate conditions "close to the actual e-market ones... before they deploy them online" (pp. 44-45).

Direct Quote, no page numbers

If your source has no page numbers, "count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document" (Lee, 2015, para. 5).

If your source has no page numbers, Lee (2015) says to "count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document" (para. 5).

Paraphrased

Librarians at community colleges teach library skills including research and citations, in collaboration with faculty, to diverse groups of students (Contrada, 2019).

Contrada (2019) notes that librarians at community colleges teach library skills including research and citations, in collaboration with faculty, to diverse groups of students.

Multiple Authors: 2

The study concluded that "existing methods have approached the difficult problem of metacognition in innovative and creative ways" (Crystal & Foote, 2009, p. 14).

Crystal and Foote (2009) conclude that "existing methods have approached the difficult problem of metacognition in innovative and creative ways" (p. 14).

Multiple Authors: 3 or more 

One such study gathered data on the number of citations for all journal articles published in the Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal (CARJ) over a 13 year period beginning in January, 2000 (Alabousi et al., 2019).

The study done by Alabousi et al. (2019) gathered data on the number of citations for all journal articles published in the Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal (CARJ) over a 13 year period beginning in January, 2000.

Corporate Author

Okanagan College began as B.C. Vocational School - Kelowna, opened in 1963 by Premier W.A.C. Bennett (Okanagan College, 2020).

Okanagan College (2020) has over 1200 employees.

Company or Group Author, long name

First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020). 

Subsequent citations: (APA, 2020).

The American Psychological Association (APA, 2020) has specific guidelines for students in the Publication Manual. It includes reference examples for classroom and intranet sources; and, also covers title pages, annotated bibliographies, and theses (APA, 2020).

More than one source in the citation

(Crystal & Foote, 2009; Cummings et al., 2000; Manouselis, 2008).

Arrange alphabetically in the citation.

According to Crystal and Foote (2009), Cummings et al. (2000), and Manouselis (2008), citations in-text are used to show where you have used a source.

No author

If there is no author, use the first few words of the title ("Citing for Business," 2013). Use quotation marks for an article title and italics for a book title (Citing for Business, 2013).

According to "Citing for Business" (2013), use title case for in-text citations, even though they are capitalized using sentence case in the reference list.

No date

Librarians can help with research and citations (Willson, n.d.).

As Willson (n.d.) explains, librarians can help with research and with citation.

Secondary source (indirect source)

Experimental research (Smith, 1998, as cited in Rasmusson & Friedman, 2002) has shown…

Do not include Smith (1998) in the reference list. Include Rasmusson & Friedman (2002). 

Whenever possible, try to find the original source rather than using a secondary source.

In Smith’s 1998 study (as cited in Rasmusson & Friedman, 2002)…

Personal communications (letters, phone calls, interviews, e-mail messages, etc.)

Do not include personal communications in the reference list. Cite them in text only. 

According to the department chair (L. Coates, personal communication, December 16, 2019)...

L. Coates (personal communication, December 16, 2019) stated that...

Interviews

Cite published interviews by the format of the reference type (magazine, podcast, YouTube video, etc.).

Cite personal interviews, those you have conducted yourself, as personal communications.

See 8.7 Interviews (APA, 2020, p. 259).

For more information see APA Style In-Text Citations

Legislation & Case Law

 

Parenthetical

Narrative

Revised Statutes of Canada (direct quote)

"Every person who advocates or promotes genocide is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years" (Criminal Code, 1985, s 318(1)(a)).

According to the Criminal Code (1985), "[e]very person who advocates or promotes genocide is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years" (s 318(1)(a)).
Revised Statutes of Canada (paraphrased) Advocacy or promotion of genocide is considered an indictable offence and any person who is guilty of commiting this offence is liable to a prison term of up to five years (Criminal Code, 1985). According to the Criminal Code (1985), advocacy or promotion of genocide is considered an indictable offence and any person who is guilty of commiting this offence is liable to a prison term of up to five years.

Charter of Rights and Freedoms (direct quote)

"Every citizen of Canada and every person who has the status of a permanent resident of Canada has the right ... to pursue the gaining of a livelihood in any province" (Canadian Charter, 1982, s 6 (2)(b)).

The Canadian Charter (1982) states that "[e]very citizen of Canada and every person who has the status of a permanent resident of Canada has the right ... to pursue the gaining of a livelihood in any province" (s 6 (2)(b)).

Revised Statutes of British Columbia (paraphrased)

The purpose of the British Columbia Treaty Commission is to act as the facilitator of treaty negotiations between first nations (one or more) and the Crown (Treaty Commission Act, 1996).

According to the Treaty Commission Act (1996), the purpose of the British Columbia Treaty Commission is to act as the facilitator of treaty negotiations between first nations (one or more) and the Crown.

Statutes of British Columbia (direct quote)

"Subject to section 6 and Part 3, if a child intentionally takes, damages or destroys property of another person, a parent of the child is liable for the loss of or damage to the property experienced as a result by an owner and by a person legally entitled to possession of the property" (Parental Liability Act, 2001, s 3).

According to the Parental Liability Act (2001), "[s]ubject to section 6 and Part 3, if a child intentionally takes, damages or destroys property of another person, a parent of the child is liable for the loss of or damage to the property experienced as a result by an owner and by a person legally entitled to possession of the property" (3).

Bills (paraphrased)

This act amends the Criminal Code to allow exemptions from culpability to offenses in the interest of providing access to medical assistance in dying (Bill C-14, 2016).

Bill C-14 (2016amends the Criminal Code to allow exemptions from culpability to offenses in the interest of providing access to medical assistance in dying.

Case Law (direct quote)

"The trial judge then granted a constitutional exemption from the mandatory minimum sentence, sentencing the appellant to one year of imprisonment and one year on probation, to be spent confined to his farm" (R v Latimer, 2001, para. 20). 

In the case of R v Latimer (2001), "[t]he trial judge then granted a constitutional exemption from the mandatory minimum sentence, sentencing the appellant to one year of imprisonment and one year on probation, to be spent confined to his farm" (para. 20).

Tables and Figures

Any image, chart, map, drawing, picture, etc., other than a table, is referred to as a "figure" by APA (APA, 2020 p. 225).

Basic components of a figure are: a number, title, the image, a legend (if needed), and a note (this is where you cite the figure if reproduced/adapted from another source) (APA, 2020, p.226-229).

The table or figure number and title are located above the figure. See examples on APA Style.

Note template:

Note. Explanation about table or figure. From Title of Work, by author, date, publication information if applicable (http://...). Date of Copyright by Copyright Holder.

APA figure example

Tables and figures can be placed on separate pages after the reference list or in the text after the first time the figure is mentioned (APA, 2020, p. 198). Follow your instructor's assignment guidelines for where to place tables and figures.

See 7.6 Placement of Tables and Figures, and 7.7 Reprinting or Adapting Tables and Figures (APA, 2020, p. 198-199).

Tables and figures must be mentioned in the text and have a full entry for the work from which it is adapted or reprinted, in the reference list (APA, 2020, p. 197-198). Indicate if the table or figure is adapted, with Adapted from before the citation (APA, 2020, p. 218).

From multiple sources:

You will need to cite all the sources where you got the information.

Example:

Note. Graph of sales of apparel and footwear in Canada and the United States by retail value 2011-2014. Data for US from Euromonitor (2014), and for Canada from Statistics Canada (2013).

Appendices

You may include appendices in your paper for tables, figures or other information that does not fit well within the body of your text. Examples could be questionnaires, tests or lists.

Label appendices in the order they appear in your paper. If you have only one, it will be Appendix. If there are more than one, it will be Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.

To refer to an appendix in text use the appendix label.

Example

The data demonstrates that both countries have seen increases in trade imports (see Appendices A and B for complete data). 

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