Two-spirit is a pan-Indigenous term that encompasses concepts of sexual, gender and/or spiritual identity. This term was agreed upon at the 3rd annual inter-tribal Native American/First Nations gay and lesbian gathering in Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1990. The adoption of two-spirit was meant to differentiate between Indigenous and non-Indigenous experiences, as well as to take the place of offensive terms imposed by European colonizers. Within Indigenous communities which hold two-spirit concepts, these individuals often have culturally-specific ceremonial and social roles. The term two-spirit is not meant to replace any culturally specific terminology or concepts already in use within Indigenous communities. Nor is it meant to be an all-encompassing term for all Indigenous individuals with LGBTQIA+ identities. For example, an individual may identify as two-spirit or Indigiqueer or both or neither. (sources: , , , )
The term Indigequeer (now more often spelled as Indigiqueer) was created by Thirza Cuthand to title the Vancouver Queer Film Festival’s Indigenous/two-spirit program in 2004. They used it as a way to acknowledge that not all LGBTQIA+ Indigenous people feel that two-spirit describes their identity. (sources: , )
IMPORTANT: the dominant structure for organizing information is from a western perspective, for this reason you may need to use outdated (sometimes offensive) terminology to find resources related to Indigenous peoples; please contact us if you'd like assistance navigating this.
Combine keywords related to the concept of Indigenous identity with keywords related to your area of interest.
|Inuit||Métis||"Indians of North America"|
|Indian||Native||Name of Nation or Community (e.g. Secwépemc)|
|"Two Spirit" or "Two Spirited" or "two-spirited"||Queer or "Queer theory"||Gender or "Gender studies"|
|Identity||LGBT or LGBTQ or LGBTQ2S||Gay|
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