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History 220-011 History of Space Exploration

This LibGuide is designed to assist students enrolled in HIST 220 in completing their research for their course assignments.

Recommended Web Site

Russian Space Agencies

The Russian Space Program has undergone multiple transformations over the last century. Starting in 1921, the Soviet space program. The program achieved some very noteworthy successes:

  1. The First Intercontinental Missile (R-7 Semyorka)

  2. The Launch of the first satellite Sputnik 1 in 1957

  3. The first animal in Space a dog named Laika in 1957

  4. The first person in Space Yuri Gagarin in 1961

  5. The first woman in Space was Valentina Tereshkova in 1963

  6. The first Space walk in 1965

  7. The first Space Station Salyut 1 1971

  8. First probe to land (not crash) on Mars 1971 


One of the Soviet space program's noteworthy trademarks was its secrecy. Currently, when you attempt to access, you receive a 403 Forbidden error message.  

Following the fall of the USSR in 1991, the Russian Space program underwent many changes. In 2013, the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities was appointed the executive authority to oversee and coordinate space projects (space flights, cosmonautics programs, and aerospace research).  

In 2022, Russia announced severing links with Western Space programs. 

To see archived webpages from the Internet Archives Wayback Machine visit. Enter in the URL in the search function. The site is in Russian, but an English version can be accessed by clicking the English version link, usually located in the upper right-hand corner of the web page. Patience is required to use this web site.  


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