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GEOG 311-3-3 Environmental Management

This course guide is designed to assist students in understanding the complex issues involved in environmental management specifically climatic change and how the adoption of new policies and technologies can help to mitigate this crisis situation.

Cows Are Part of the Problem

Cattle are the No. 1 agricultural source of greenhouse gases worldwide. GHG emitted by cattle is estimated to be 4.6 gigatonnes annually. That's 2.9 gigatonnes for beef cattle and 1.4 gigatonnes for dairy cattle. While there are a relatively small number of cattle in the Regional District of Central Okanagan, our neighbouring regional districts (all within a 2-hour drive of downtown Kelowna) have sizable cattle herds.

Data derived from the 2016 Agricultural Census of Canada

Regional District Cattle & Calfs Dairy Cows Beef Cows
CSRD 13,757 3,419 3,042
RDNO 35,634 6,588 8,011
RDCO (Kelowna) 3,733 5 1,797
RDOS 16,067 4 6,903
Total 69,191 10,016 19,753

There are many opinions on how to fix this problem and many technologies and modern agricultural practices are available to help reduce the amount of GHG that cattle emit. But the rollout of these solutions has been slow. 


Did You Know?

While the number of cattle recorded in Central Okanagan by the last Agricultural Census was relatively small, however, in the Regional District of North Okanagan and the Columbia Shuswap Regional District, there are over 9,000 dairy cows. Each pooping on average 62 Kg of manure daily. This has caused problems for water quality in these regions. 

Estimated Manure Production by Region (2006)


BioGas - Renewable Natural Gas

BioChar - A By-Product of the BioGas Production

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