A footnote¹ or an endnote² (note) generally lists the author, title, and facts of publication in that order. The constituent parts are separated by commas (and the facts of publication are enclosed in parentheses). This is followed by the page numbers or other locators of the material being cited. For electronic material lacking page numbers, these may include chapter or paragraph numbers, section headings and the like.
It is preferable the notes be supplemented by a bibliography giving the sources consulted in alphabetical order. In a bibliography, the elements are separated by periods and the facts of publication are not enclosed in parentheses. The first-listed author's name in usually inverted, last-name first
If the bibliography includes all the works included in the notes, a shortened form of footnote or endnote can be used which does not duplicate all the elements that appear in the bibliography.
For an extensive collection of examples of notes and bibliography entries go here.
Please note, when citing sources consulted online, the uniform resource locator, or URL, should generally be included as the final element in a citation. Further information can be found here.
As many e-books and other electronic formats feature scrolling text it may not be possible to cite specific page numbers. For advice on other options go here.
1. Footnotes go at the bottom of the page.
2. Endnotes contain the same information as footnotes but are placed at the end of your paper preceding the bibliography.
Authors' names are given in standard order (first names first) and significant words in (English-language) titles are capitalized:
3. Richardson, Allissa V., Bearing Witness while Black : African Americans, Smartphones, and the New Protest
#journalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2020), 75.
3. Richardson, Bearing Witness, 75.
Richardson, Allissa V. Bearing Witness while Black : African Americans, Smartphones, and the New Protest #journalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.
For works with two or three authors, include all their names in the footnotes or endnotes. For works with four or more authors, include only the first in the footnotes or endnotes but include them all in the bibliography.
4. Rinaldo Walcott and Idil Abdillahi, BlackLife: Post-BLM and the Struggle for Freedom (Winnipeg: ARP Books,2019), 25-33.
4. Walcott and Abdillahi, BlackLife, 25-33.
Walcott, Rinaldo and Idil Abdillahi. BlackLife: Post-BLM and the Struggle for Freedom. Winnipeg: ARP Books, 2019.
For edited collections, where the chapters are written by different hands, begin with the author and title of the chapter being cited followed by the name of the book, its editor, the facts of publication, and the page(s) being cited. Precede the book's title with the word 'in'.
5. Silvia Argentina Arauz, "Mothering in the Movement," in Until We Are Free: Reflections on Black Lives Matter in
5. Arauz, "Mothering," 238.
Note that 'edited' is spelled out in full and that the range of pages for the chapter as a whole are given rather than only the page(s) cited in the endnote or footnote.
Arauz, Silvia Argentina Arauz. "Mothering in the Movement," in Until We are Free: Reflections on Black Lives Matter in Canada, edited by Rodney Diverlus, Sandy Hudson, and Syrus Marcus Ware, 237-245. Regina: University of Regina Press, 2020.
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